Gypsum drywall, often referred to as wallboard, plasterboard, sheetrock or buster board, is a common building material used in walls and ceilings. It offers a variety of benefits, including fire resistance and sound attenuation.
However, there are a few quality problems that can develop and lead to costly repairs. The most common problem is moisture damage.
When gypsum board is exposed to moisture, it can be damaged in a variety of ways. For example, water leaks from plumbing, improperly installed or missing flashing, pipe ruptures, bathtub disasters and general water exposure can all cause gypsum board to become saturated with water and deteriorate.
Many studies have investigated the effects of moisture and fungal growth on gypsum drywall. These studies are valuable for determining how to prevent or mitigate the effects of moisture on gypsum drywall.
However, these studies do not provide a consensus regarding three research questions: what are the moisture parameters that influence gypsum drywall moisture and fungal growth; how do building factors influence moisture parameters; and how do these parameters affect fungal growth.
The first research question involves the moisture parameters that can be measured to characterize moisture associated with the three locations in buildings: air, at a material surface, and within a material. Various parameters can be used to do this, including RH, ERH and surface wetting.
In laboratory and field investigations, relative humidity (RH) was the most common measurement method. It was also the most standardized measurement parameter. In contrast, moisture content (MC) was less standardized and varied more greatly in both laboratory and field investigations.
Researchers have suggested that the moisture that enables microbial growth may be available at surfaces, such as the gypsum surface or at an interfacial layer between the gypsum and a starchy component of the drywall material. In addition, the MC of gypsum drywall can increase significantly in a hygrothermal environment because of its low thermal resistance.
Therefore, a critical moisture value that defines the level at which gypsum drywall will not be affected by moisture-induced fungal growth is difficult to establish. This is because fungal species have different tolerances to moisture and varying substrate characteristics can impact their growth rates on gypsum drywall.
In addition, different moisture measurements can have different relationships with one another depending on how they are conditioned. This is especially true for MC values, which are affected by both building factors and in situ conditions. In addition, there are a variety of other parameters that are often considered to determine the extent of moisture-induced damage to a building assembly. These include the amount of time that the building is occupied and whether or not a room is ventilated.
Gypsum board, also known as gypsum panel or plasterboard, is a popular interior building product in the United States. It consists of a noncombustible gypsum core surrounded by paper on the face, back and long edges. It is commonly used for suspended ceilings in residential, commercial and institutional buildings.
The gypsum core can be made from natural or synthetic gypsum. Generally, synthetic gypsum is considered more environmentally friendly than natural gypsum. Synthetic gypsum products are typically certified as low-VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) products by the GREENGUARD Environmental Institute.
One of the most common quality problems in gypsum wallboard is the use of too much retardant. Retardant agents such as ammonia, glue, gelatin, starch, molasses, and vegetable oil are added to slow the rate of hardening and prevent the plaster from setting too quickly and becoming soft and powdery. The use of too much retardant can be dangerous because it could lead to an increase in fire hazard.
Another major problem with gypsum board is its susceptibility to water damage. This is because gypsum has been known to absorb moisture from the air. This can make it more susceptible to forming molds. This issue can be remedied by using furring strips, a technique that helps keep masonry walls dry.
However, even with a proper lining of the gypsum boards, they can still become damaged by fungi. Fungi penetrate gypsum walls and can cause extensive structural defects. This is especially true for gypsum boards that have been exposed to moisture for an extended period of time.
When a gypsum board has become damaged by water or fungi, it can be difficult to remove the molds from the board. This requires special equipment and skills in order to do so.
Because gypsum is a highly durable material, it is often used in many construction projects. It is also used to form a protective sheathing around masonry walls, and in certain cases can be applied directly to a masonry wall without lathing.
A gypsum sheathing can also provide a significant amount of energy dissipation, which can help to reduce the lateral force-resisting characteristics of a structure. This can be especially important in areas that are prone to severe earthquakes.
Structural deterioration in building structures is a major issue, as it is costly to the owner and affects public safety, health and economics. The deterioration is generally caused due to poor workmanship or improper construction. However, the causes vary in different buildings/structures. Hence, it is essential to understand these problems and find out the probable causes of the deterioration so that precautionary measures can be taken.
The deterioration can be caused by many factors, including structural movement and moisture exposure. Moisture damage can lead to the development of mold and fungi in the surface of the suspended ceiling material, which can eventually cause serious structural damage. The presence of mold and fungi can also result in the spread of allergens, such as dust mites or pet dander, which may cause respiratory illness.
If a structural defect in the gypsum shear wall results in excessive lateral forces on the sheathing, it can cause the wall to collapse. In this case, it is important to determine whether or not the lateral forces are caused by the wallboard failure or by the deterioration of the sheathing itself.
In some cases, the deterioration of the sheathing can be repaired by re-nailing it to the wall frame or by replacing it with a new sheathing system. In this case, it is recommended to consult with a structural engineer.
Another way to prevent gypsum shear walls from failing is to use viscoelastic materials. These materials are designed to increase the shear strength of gypsum shear walls and reduce their response to seismic forces.
These materials can also increase the strength of sheathing panels, thereby reducing the amount of shear stress that is applied to the wall. Several studies have shown that gypsum shear walls with viscoelastic materials have improved lateral stiffness and reduced their response to earthquakes.
This study was conducted to determine the performance of a viscoelastic gypsum shear wall system in comparison with a conventional gypsum shear wall system. The viscoelastic shear wall system dissipated more energy throughout the test than the conventional gypsum shear wall. The VE shear wall averaged 3,680 lb/in of total stiffness during the first 31 cycles of displacement, which was 481% higher than the conventional gypsum shear walls.
Gypsum board (also known as drywall or plasterboard) is the most common type of interior wall and ceiling paneling used in residential and commercial construction. It consists of a gypsum core that is covered by paper or fiberglass. This material is typically installed in walls and ceilings for a variety of purposes, including sound insulation and fire resistance.
It is a durable product that can last for years, and it can be painted or stained to look great. It is also very easy to repair. However, there are a few defects that may arise with this material.
One of the most common problems is cracking in the joints between boards. This is often caused by moisture that seeps into the gypsum board. For this reason, it is important to choose only high-quality gypsum board.
Another problem is that gypsum board may start to warp after some time. This is especially true if you are hanging heavy items on the panels. plywood, on the other hand, offers greater structural strength and can be screwed directly to studs.
This is one of the best options for homeowners who want a clean and crisp look to their suspended ceilings. It can be painted or stained to match your decor, and it is very easy to repair.
There are several types of gypsum board available, and each one has different properties. Some of these include fire-resistant gypsum board, water-repellent gypsum board, and synthetic gypsum board.
The most popular gypsum board is the fire-resistant version. This type has pink cardboard face sides, pink or gray backsides, and red tape-covered edges. This is a good choice for people who want to make false ceilings and can use it in both residential and commercial buildings.
In addition to its fire-resistant quality, this board is also resistant to mold. It is an excellent option for homes with leaking roofs or air conditioning drain pipes, as it can prevent the growth of mildew and fungus.
Synthetic gypsum board is made from recycled materials, such as coal fly ash and newsprint waste. It reduces several of the environmental impacts associated with raw gypsum production, including habitat disruption and energy use. It also uses less water and emits fewer greenhouse gases than raw gypsum.